The United Kingdom of Greater Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom, UK, Britannia, UK, or UK) is a developed country located on the northwest coast of continental Europe. It is an island nation, spread over the British Isles which includes Great Britain, the northeastern part of Ireland, and several smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK where a land border borders another nation and here the Ireland UK Is a neighboring country. In addition to this country’s border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel, and the Irish Sea. The largest island, Great Britain, is connected to France by the Channel Tunnel.
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and unitary state consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. It is governed by a parliamentary system whose government sits in London, the capital, but has three devolved national administrations, Belfast, Cardiff, and Edinburgh, the capital of Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland respectively. Jersey and Guernsey Islands, collectively known as the Channel Called islands and man islands (Isle of Man), the UK has a kingship dependency and is not part of the UK. Apart from this, there are fourteen overseas dependent areas of the UK, the British Empire, which was at its peak in 1922, covered almost a quarter of the world’s territories and was the largest empire in history. British influence can still be seen in the language, culture, and legal system of its former colonies.
The UK is a developed country, with the sixth-largest economy in the world by symbolic GDP and the seventh-largest by purchasing power parity. It was the first industrialized country in the world and the world’s leading power during the 19th and 20th centuries, but the economic costs of two world wars and the collapse of the empire in the late 20th century reduced its leading role in global affairs yet The UK remains a major power due to its strong economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence. It is a nuclear power and the fourth-highest defense spending country in the world. It is a member of the European Union, holds a permanent seat on the UN Security Council, and is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the OECD, NATO, and the World Trade Organization.
On 1 May 1707, the United Kingdom of Greater Britain was established by the Kingdom of England (which included Wales) and the political union of the Kingdom of Scotland. The treaty was agreed to on 22 July 1706. And then it was ratified by the Act of 1707 of a Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. Nearly a century later, the Kingdom of Ireland, which had come under English control by 1691, merged with the Kingdom of Great Britain by Acts of the Union 1800 to form the United Kingdom. Although England and Scotland were separated before 1707, they were personally in union with the union of kingship in 1603, when King James VI of the Scots inherited the throne of the Kingdom of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London. took away.
In its first century, the United Kingdom played an important role in developing Western ideas of the parliamentary system as well as making significant contributions to literature, art, and science. The Industrial Revolution led by the UK changed the country and stimulated the growing British Empire. During this time, like other great powers, the UK was involved in colonial exploitation, including the Atlantic slave trade, although with the passage of the Slave Trade Act in 1807, the UK became a pioneer in combating the slave trade played the part.
Following Napoleon’s defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, the UK emerged as a major force in the Navy in the 19th century and remained a noted power until the mid-20th century. By 1921 the British Empire had expanded to its maximum size, achieving the Confederate Mandate of Nations over the German and Ottoman colonies after World War I. A year later, the world’s first large-scale international broadcast network, BBC, was created.
In 1918, Sinn Féin won an election, which was followed by a freedom struggle in Ireland which led to the partition of the island in 1921 followed by the independence of the Irish independent state in 1922 when Northern Ireland chose to become part of the UK. As a result, in 1927, the UK’s formal name was changed to its current name, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom was one of the allies of the Second World War. After the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, the United Kingdom continued the air campaign war against Germany known as the Battle of Britain. Following this victory, the UK was one of the powers that helped plan the post-war world. The United Kingdom was financially damaged by World War II. However, Marshall Aid and expensive loans from both the United States and Canada helped Britain recover.
The immediate post-war years saw the establishment of the Welfare State, which included the world’s first and most comprehensive public health services, while demands for reform of the economy propelled people from across the Commonwealth to create a multi-ethnic Britain. Although the new post-war frontier of Britain’s political role was confirmed by the Suez Crisis of 1956, the international spread of the English language meant continued influence of literature and culture, while its popular culture was also found to have influence abroad from the 1960s.
After a period of global economic recession and industrial disputes in the 1970s, the 1980s saw the arrival of substantial North Sea oil earnings and economic growth. Margaret Thatcher’s headmistress marked a significant direction change from post-war political and economic consensus; A path that has continued since 1997 under the new Labor governments of Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.
The United Kingdom was one of the 12 founding countries of the beginning of the European Union by the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. Prior to this, it has been a precursor member of the European Economic Community (EEC) of the European Union since 1973. The current labor government’s approach towards integration with the organization is mixed, with government opposition, the conservative party, which favors certain powers and competencies, was transferred to the European Union. The end of the 20th century saw many changes in UK governance, with the establishment of devolved national administrations for Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales following pre-legislative context.
The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 245000 km2 which includes the islands of Great Britain, one-sixth of the northeast of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland), and smaller islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, within 35 km of the northwest coast of France, from which it is separated by the English Channel. Great Britain lies between latitude 49 ° and 59 ° north (Shetland Island reaches 61 ° north) and longitude 8 ° east to 2 ° west. The Royal Greenwich Observatory, near London, is the defining mark of the major culmination. When measured directly north-south, Great Britain is 1100 km in length and a fraction less than 500 km at its widest, the highest distance between the two points is 1350 km at the end of the land and at Cornwall (near Penzance) and Caithness Between John O’Groats (near Thurso). Northern Ireland shares 360 km of borderland with Ireland.
The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plenty of rainfall throughout the year. The temperature varies with the season but sometimes falls below -10 C or rises to 35 C. The prevailing wind is from the southeast, bringing frequent and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. The eastern part has received the maximum refuge from the wind and is, therefore, the driest. Atlantic currents heated by the Gulf River bring mild winters, especially in the west, where winters are wet, especially in the highlands. Closest to the European continent, summers are the warmest in the southeast of England, and the coldest snowfall in the north can occur in winter and early spring, although away from the high ground it seldom settles to great depths.
England is just half of the total area of the UK, covering 130410 km2. Most of the country has Terai areas, with the mountainous area northwest of the Tis-X line, with the Cambrian Hills, Pennines, and Peak Districts of Limestone Hills, Including Exmoor and Dartmoor. The Thames, Severn, and Humber are the main rivers and estuaries. The highest mountain in England is Scafell Pike, in Lake District 978 m. There are several cities and cities in England, including six of the EU’s top 50 large urban areas. Scotland accounts for one-third of the UK’s total area, covering 78772 km2, which includes eight thousand islands, mainly on the west and north mainland, particularly the Hebrides, Orkney Islands, and the Shetland Islands. The topography of Scotland is distinguished by country boundary error – a geological stone fracture – which crosses the mainland of Scotland from Helensburgh to Stonehaven. This default line separates two distinctly different regions; That is, the Party to the north and west and the Terai to the south and the east. The more heterogeneous ecological region comprises the majority of Scotland’s hilly terrain, including Ben Nevis, which is the highest in the British Isles at 1343 m. The Terai region, especially the Firth of the Clyde and the Firth of the forward called the Central Belt, has a narrow slab of land between the country and houses the majority of the population, with Glasgow being the largest city in Scotland and Edinburgh. , The capital and political center of the country.
Wales occupies less than a tenth of the UK’s total land, covering 20758 km2. Wells are mostly mountainous, although South Wales is less mountainous than North and Central Wales. The main population and industrial area of South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff (capital, political and economic center), Swansea and Newport, and the South Wales Valley to the north. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia and include Snowdon (Welsh: Yr Wyddfa), the highest peak in Wales at 1085 m (3560 ft). The 14 (or possibly 15) Welsh mountains are about 3000 feet (914 m) high, collectively known as the Welsh 3000. Wales has a coastline of 1200 km (750 mi). There are several islands off the Welsh mainland, the largest of which is Ynys Môn in the northwest.
Northern Ireland is just 14160 km2 and is mostly hilly. It includes the Logh Neagh, at 388 km2, the largest water area in the UK and Ireland. Slive Donard is the highest peak in Northern Ireland at 849 m of the Morne Mountains.