India, official name Republic of India, situated in south Asia, is the largest country of the Indian subcontinent. It is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere. India is geographically the seventh largest country in the world (1.Russia, 2.Canada, 3.China, 4.America, 5.Brazil, 4.Australia), while in terms of population it is the second largest country after China. . To the west of India are Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal and Bhutan in the northeast, Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east. The Indian Ocean borders the Maldives to its southwest, Sri Lanka to the south and Indonesia to the south-east. To its north lies the Himalayan Mountains and to the south the Indian Ocean. To the south-east lies the Bay of Bengal and to the west is the Arabian Sea.
Modern humans or Homo sapiens came from Africa to the Indian subcontinent 55,000 years ago. As hunters, they started different businesses and thus made the region highly diversified thus making them second in human genetic diversity after Africa. 6,000 years ago, they settled on the western side of the Indus River from where they gradually migrated and developed as a civilization of the Indus Valley. In 1,200 BC, the Sanskrit language was spread throughout the Indian subcontinent and by then Hinduism had originated and the Rigveda was composed. By 400 BCE, casteism can be seen in Hinduism. At the same time Buddhism and Jainism are arising. Early political aggregation gave rise to the Maurya and Gupta empires located in the Ganges basin. His society was filled with elaborate creativity. But the status of women was also falling. The states of Central India in South India exported Dravidian languages, scripts, cultures and traditions to countries in South East Asia.
The Indian subcontinent has been known for its long history of cultural and economic success, being the place of development of ancient Indus Valley Civilization and large empires. Four major sects: Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, and Sikh religions arose here, Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religions arrived in the first millennium and revamped its diverse culture. As a result of the successive victories, the British East India Company annexed most parts of India in the 17th and 19th centuries. After the failed revolt of 1857, the British government took over the administration of India. As the British India, the major part of the British Empire, India gained independence on 15 August 1949 after a long and mainly non-violent freedom struggle under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. In the new constitution, enacted in 1950, it was declared a constitutional democratic republic based on public adult suffrage and a Westminster-style parliamentary government was established on the lines of the United Kingdom. A federal nation, India has been formed into 29 states and 4 union territories. After following socialist economic policies for a long time, after 1991, India has made meaningful economic and social progress on the basis of new policies of liberalization and globalization.
In 2017, the Indian economy is the sixth-largest in the world by standard values (nominal) and the third-largest in the world by purchasing power parity. India is the seventh-largest nation in the world by geographical area with an area of 3.3 million square kilometers. After the market-based reforms of 191, India has become one of the fastest-growing large economies in the world and is considered a newly industrialized nation. But India still faces the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, inadequate public healthcare, and terrorism. Today India is a diverse, multilingual, and multi-ethnic society and the Indian Army is a regional power. The Indian economy is the fifth most powerful economy in the world.
India has two official names – India in Hindi and India in English. The name India derives from the English name “Indus” of the Indus River. The name Bharat is derived from the name of an ancient emperor Bharata, a descendant of Manu and the eldest son of Rishabhdev, whose legend is in the Srimad Bhagavat Mahapurana. According to etymology, the word Bharat (bha + rāt) means absorbed in inner light or vidेकka-like light. There is also a third name Hindustan, which means the land of Hindus, this name became especially prevalent in Arab / Iran. The invaders from Iran used to pronounce H, thus they called Sindhu a Hindu, and later on, it was named Hindustan. About two and a half hundred years ago, the Iranians and Greeks who came from the North West called the Indus the Hindus or Ideos, and the region to the east of this river called India, India was used for a group of people living in the North West. The Sanskrit early period is found in the 36000-year-old Kriti Rigveda.
Its contemporary use is less and often for northern India. Apart from this, Bharatvarsha has also been known as Aryavarta “Jambudweep” and “Ajnabhadesh” since the Vedic period. Long ago, a golden name of India, ‘gold bird’ was also popular.
The national icon of India is a replica of the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath, which is safe in the museum of Sarnath. The Government of India adopted this symbol on January 26, 1950. Only three lions are visible in it, the fourth lion is not visible. ‘Satyamev Jayate’ is inscribed in Devanagari script under the national emblem.
The national flag of India has three parallel rectangular strips. The top is saffron-colored, the middle is white and the bottom is dark green. The length to width ratio of the flag is 3: 2. In place of the spinning on the white stripe, the Dharmachakra Anukriti Ashoka Chakra with the lion pillar of Sarnath is dark blue. The diameter of the circle is approximately the width of the white band and it has 24 holes. National Language: The first part of ‘Jan-Gana-mana’ written by Hindi poet Rabindranath Thakur was adopted as the national anthem of India on January 26, 1950 AD. At the same time, it was decided that ‘Vande Mataram’ written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee would also be given the same status as ‘Jana-Gana-Mana’, as the song ‘Vande Mataram’ in the freedom struggle was the inspiration of the masses.
The Government of India has adopted Saka Samvat as the national almanac for the whole country. Its first month is ‘Chait’ and the year is generally 375 days. The days of this almanac sit permanently as per the days of the English almanac. Along with the Gregory calendar (English calendar), the National Almanac is also used for official work.
65,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens, arrived in the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they first evolved. The oldest known modern human lived in South Asia, some 30,000 years ago. After 6500 BCE, evidence for the domination of food crops and animals, the construction of permanent structures, and the storage of agricultural surpluses appeared in Mehrgarh and now other sites in Balochistan. These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilization, the first urban culture in South Asia, now in Pakistan and Western India, around 2500–1400 BC. Thrived during.
Stone Age Bhimbetka caves of Madhya Pradesh are the oldest evidence of human life in India. The first permanent settlements took from 9000 years ago. This later developed into the Indus Valley Civilization, which was at its peak between 2400 BCE and 1900 BCE. Around 1600 BC the Aryans came to India and introduced the Vedic civilization in the North Indian regions. The sources of this civilization are Vedas and Puranas. But the Arya-invasion-theory is still controversial. The belief of some scholars, including Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, is that Arya has been a permanent resident of India and Vedic history is about 65,000 years old. At the same time, the Dravidian civilization continued to develop in South India. The two castes built a mixed-culture in India, adopting each other’s strengths.
Several independent states were formed after 500 BC. The Maurya dynasty of North India is notable among the early dynasties of India, whose majestic emperor Ashoka has a special place in world history. Several invasions came from Central Asia beginning in the year 180 CE, which resulted in the establishment of the Greek, Saka, Parthi, and finally Kushan dynasties in the North Indian subcontinent. The period beyond the third century when India was ruled by the Gupta dynasty was called the “Golden Age” of India. “In South India, many dynasties were Chalukyas, Cheras, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas. -Pass Sangam-literature was at its peak, with the addition of the Tamil language. The Satavahanas and Chalukyas established their supremacy in Central India. Science, art, literature, mathematics, astronomy, ancient technology, religion, and philosophy were ruled by these kings. Flourished in
In the early 12th century, after the Islamic invasions on India, most of northern and central India became under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate; And later, most of the subcontinent under the Mughal dynasty. The Vijayanagara Empire turned out to be powerful in South India. However, especially in comparison, many states remained, or came into existence in the protected South. The Marathas flourished in the south and central India in the seventeenth century after the Mughals’ brief authority. The power of the Sikhs increased in the northwest.
In the middle of the 16th century, many European countries, including Portugal, Dutch, France, Britain, who were willing to do business with India, took advantage of the internal governmental anarchy of the country, the British were successful in stopping the people wanting to trade from other countries and the 180 Succeeded in ruling almost the entire country. After the unsuccessful rebellion against the British East India Company in 1858, also known since the First War of Indian Independence, most of India came directly under the administrative control of British rule.
The spread of modern education in the early twentieth century and the changing political conditions on the globe led to the introduction of an intellectual movement in India that laid the foundation for many changes and movements at social and political levels. The establishment of the Indian National Congress in 185 gave a free movement to the independence movement. In the early twentieth century, there was a long non-violent struggle for independence, led by Mahatma Gandhi, officially known as the ‘Father of Modern India’, the social movement of India in this century, which was social There was also a huge non-violent and revolutionist struggle for independence, which was led by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, who is known as the ‘creator of modern India’, ‘constitution maker’ and ‘Masiha of Dalits’. Along with this, the revolutionary struggle led by Chandrashekhar Azad, Sardar Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Veer Savarkar, etc. resulted in complete independence from English rule on 15 August 1949. Subsequently, on January 26, 1950, India became a republic.
Being a multi-ethnic and multi-religious nation, India has suffered from communal and ethnic hatred from time to time. Even though regional discontent and rebellion have taken place in different parts of the country, its secularism, and democracy, except for 1985–7, when the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency, remains intact.
There are unresolved border disputes with India’s neighboring nations. Due to this, it has also faced a war on a small scale. Battles have been fought with China in 1962, and with Pakistan in 19, 1975, 1971, and 19.
India is one of the founding member countries of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations.
In 1979, India conducted its first nuclear test, after which 5 more tests were done in 1949. Due to the economic reforms done in the 1990s, the country has come into the list of the fastest developing nations today.